Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in and the collapse of the Soviet Union and Communism in Eastern Europe, Croatia and Slovenia declared independence from Yugoslavia in and Bosnia-Herzegovina also broke away from the federal republic in In response to these de- velopments, the Serbian military invaded portions of Croatia and Bosnia resulting in the ethnic cleansing and bitter hostilities between the antagonists.
The costly Balkan wars led to the signing of the Dayton Accord in , which outlined a future peace process involving Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian leaders.
Israel at a Crossroads
On February 17, , Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia but tensions between the parties remained high. Sadly, some ten years later, the deep-seated mistrust in the region has risen again. A recent example of this challenge occurred on January 16, , with the assassination of Oliver Ivanovic, a Kosovan Serb leader of the civic initiative, Freedom, Democracy, Justice SDP by an unknown gunman. This attack took place on the day that talks to normalize relations between Kosovans and Serbs, mediated by the European Union EU , were to be held.
This scheduled meeting was predictably aborted. NATO, which has maintained a peacekeeping force in the region since , following the Kosovan War, has urged all the parties to show constraint and return to the negotiating table. Other countries with historical relationships and current interests in the Balkans such as Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, and Turkey, are already members of the alliance and are continuing to support NATO mission in Europe and around the globe.
For instance, Albania, Bosnia Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Serbia are continu- ing their participation in the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS and are engaged in multiplecounter-terrorism activities, including introducing legislation, law enforcement border security, countering the financing of terrorism, combating violent extremism, and participating in inter- national and regional cooperation. Recent epidemics, such as Ebola and Zika, and the potential dangers of biological terrorism from both state and non-state actors highlight the urgent need to address these challenges through international partnerships and comprehensive biosecurity strategies to reduce the gravest health risks at home and abroad.
Download the report here. In view of the multiple security challenges to international peace and order posed by the intensification of terrorist attacks for over the past half-century, governmental, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental bodies have developed tactical and strategic responses on national, regional, and global levels. The role of diplomacy is, indeed, a critical element in the evolving process. The key question is whether the U.
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The purpose of this report is to focus on the interface between terrorism and the rule of law. The key question is whether nations can strike a balance between security concerns and protecting civil liberties and constitutional order. Preventing the proliferation of biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear weapons has been a major priority for many nation states in the post-World War II era. Thus, as the international community is currently approaching the year anniversary of the influenza pandemic that killed an estimated million people, it is assessing the implications of the recent epidemics of Ebola and Zika, considering potential dangers of biological terrorism, and beginning to offer recommendations on response strategies to reduce the risk on national, regional, and global levels.
The study recommends the U. The latest terrorist incidents in the U. These include security threats to the safety, welfare, and rights of ordinary people; the stability of the state system; the impact on national, regional, and global economic development; the expansion of democratic societies; and the prevention of the destruction of civilization by biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons.
NATO, as it marked its 68th anniversary, is still facing a broad range of old and new challenges, including piracy, terrorism, regional and global conflicts, humanitarian crises, proliferation of WMD, and cyber threats. As the new administration of President Donald J. Trump is beginning to develop its Middle East foreign policy strategy, the decades-old Israeli-Palestinian conflict still persists.
In addition to the multiple outstanding issues to be resolved by the parties, such as the need for mutual recognition and the settling of boundary disputes, questions remain regarding the future of Jerusalem, the Holy City, which is considered by Israel as its eternal capital—and which the Palestinians also see as their own capital in a future state. First, can religion in general serve as an effective bridge to advance the cause of peace in the Middle East and elsewhere?
And second, will the antagonists and their partisan Jewish, Muslim, and Christian co-religionists be capable of a peaceful resolution on the final status of the Holy City? The role of force in the struggle for power within and among nations is a permanent fixture of international life. Clearly, the primary actors capable of resorting to power domestically during periods of peace are the police and other law enforcement agencies.
They are mandated to implement the preservation of public order, and thus represent the first layer of protection for civilians, including citizens, permanent residents, and visiting foreigners.
Haim Malka | KCRW
And yet, from time immemorial, military forces in particular have projected power at home and abroad during periods of both war and peace. It is not surprising therefore that there exists a comprehensive literature in this field, from antiquity to the contemporary era. Suffice to mention the infinite theological and secular sources covering the nature, role, and impact of armies on the direction of the statecraft of nations.
Download the full PDF here. The failure of contemporary societies during the past sixty years in the post-World War II period to effectively combat terrorism at home and abroad is, indeed, puzzling. After all, all nations are fully aware that the most critical element in combating the challenge of terrorism is intelligence.
That is, the knowledge acquired, whether overtly or covertly, for the purpose of both internal and external statecraft. And yet, despite this awareness, the grim reality is that terrorism is still attractive and works. For instance, according to recent press reports, during the past year and a half alone some 2, attacks were recorded in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia, with a death toll of 28, Likewise, 46 attacks occurred in Europe and the Americas, and as a result of which some were killed.
The purpose of this introduction is to provide an academic context for the apparent lingering confusion regarding the nature and implications of intelligence in democracies. It presents a brief overview of the challenge of modern terrorism, outlines key aspects of the role of intelligence in confronting the threats at home and abroad, and reports on the two latest academic efforts in this security area that are incorporated in this study.
The International Center for Terrorism Studies produced a report in May reflecting on past and current assessments as well as anticipated future outlooks for the role of law enforcement in combating terrorism. The purpose of this report is to deal only with some selected terrorism-related dangers, focusing on law enforcement and police responses.
In the face of such and other security concerns, the missions of law enforcement and police agencies are therefore linked directly or indirectly to broad frameworks of national, regional, and inter-regional response strategies and tactics. Among the numerous prevalent concepts, mention should be made of those such as anti-terrorism, combating terrorism, counter-insurgency efforts, clandestine operations, overseas contingency activities, targeted killings, and the global war on terrorism.
Download the full pdf here. The event is hosted by The Semper Fi Fund, a non-profit set up to provide immediate financial support for injured and critically ill members of the U. Armed Forces and their families. All donation proceeds will directly benefit the Semper Fi Fund.
Author Scott Laidig says the book is relevant and timely now, as much because of the enduring example of Gen. Gray's leadership and his signficant accomplishments in an austere budget environment, as well as his continuing commitment to military men and women, and their families. To effect continual communication with policy-makers, academic institutions, business, media, and civic organizations;. To sponsor research programs on critical issues, particularly those relating enabling technologies with policy, and share findings nationally and internationally. In this breakthrough book, General Al Gray and Dr.
Paul Otte provide a new model for achieving a higher level of leadership. But, the authors do more than address what many leaders today are experiencing. They propose a new way of making a difference though Vantage Leadership, defined as the ability to embrace uncertainty, see the possible over the probable, remain conceptual through conflict, and more.
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General Gray and Dr. Paul Otte have successfully outlined these principles of leadership in a fashion that will continue to inspire and guide people for generations to come. Now, General Gray and his writing partner Dr. Paul Otte have captured these thoughts in a superb book. You can us the same principles in your in your business or professional life.
North Korea at a Nuclear Crossroads
Miller, Jr. Beijing has slowly penetrated the 'softer' central and southern periphery of the European Union, aiming to access the 'core economies' of Europe. The Italian government hopes that membership in the BRI will open new opportunities in trade and investment, considering the country's sluggish economic growth over the last two decades. With a government debt of percent of GDP, Italy is hoping to finance some of its infrastructure projects with Chinese money.
While Chinese banks might finance select infrastructure projects in Italy, there are concerns this may lead to an unsustainable financial situation, adding to the economic and political strings attached to Chinese economic funding under BRI. The European Union, as a whole, has not achieved increased access to Chinese markets, despite long years of insistence. It is possible, however, that strengthened transportation networks and future Chinese control over infrastructure and strategic investment will, in the long-term, destroy Italy's local industries. This is a significant change from the previous Italian government of the Democratic Party coalition led by Paolo Gentiloni, which in collaboration with the German and French governments, had requested such a mechanism in a letter submitted to the European Commission in February , highlighting growing concerns about Chinese investments in Europe.
Europe needs to defend its technological sovereignty, while investing in new industries that can compete with Chinese big-state enterprises. In the new " EU-China: A Strategic Outlook " document, the focus is to achieve a more balanced relationship with China, based on fair competition and market access, with the goal of persuading China to commit to reforms within the framework of the World Trade Organization of industrial subsidies and policies.
The EU strategy is signaling an end to China's unfettered access to the EU market, and Beijing is failing to reciprocate by liberalizing its own market. Though prospects for better alignment in European and Chinese interests are questionable at this juncture, the common strategy is a good step forward. Effective implementation, however, will require a joint European response.
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Nevertheless, Italy is among the most important economic and political players in Europe, and any EU response that excludes Italy would be incomplete and unsuccessful. Marshall European Center for Security Studies. To empower members to confidently understand and navigate a continuously changing and complex global environment. Sign In. Situation Reports. Analyses Assessments Snapshots Columns.